Translating the Tibetan Canon into Chinese 藏傳佛典漢譯計畫

這件事我們四、五十年前就應該做了。-宗薩欽哲仁波切

“We should have done this forty or fifty years ago.”
這件事我們四、五十年前就應該做了。宗薩欽哲仁波切

Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche

OVERVIEW 概述

Introduction 前言

After 2,500 years, the teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni are still a living tradition in both Chinese and Tibetan Buddhism because Buddhist scriptures were translated into the languages of the Chinese and Tibetan people long ago. Both civilizations had the good fortune to have Buddhist translators and scholars who went through major hardships to bring the Dharma back home. Great kings and patrons also provided the necessary causes and conditions to support this work.

佛陀的教法之所以能在2500年後依然廣為漢人與西藏人所修習,是因為佛經在很早以前就翻譯成漢文與藏文。這兩個文明都非常幸運地擁有那些願意不辭勞苦,將佛法帶回自己故鄉的譯師及學者,還有偉大的國君與功德主願意供養譯經工作所需要的種種因緣條件。

Need for Cross-Translation 漢藏佛典互譯計畫的必要性

Although both Chinese and Tibetan Buddhist scriptures are mainly translated from Sanskrit, not all texts are shared by the Tibetan and Chinese canons. The gap between the eras of translation of these two canons is more than 700 years. The Chinese canon has more early Buddhist texts, and the Tibetan canon has more important commentaries written by Indian masters. According to preliminary assessments done by scholars, about 70 percent of the contents overlap, but some of the Chinese Buddhist scriptures are missing in the Tibetan and vice versa. Some texts are more comprehensive in one language and more concise in the other. Filling these gaps through cross-translation is a major step in ensuring that the Buddhadharma will be kept intact in both canons for generations to come.

雖然漢、藏佛典大多是從梵文翻譯過來的,但不是所有的文本都同樣保存在藏文與漢文《大藏經》中,因為兩部《大藏經》譯經的年代相差了七百多年。漢文《大藏經》含括較多早期佛教的典籍,而西藏《大藏經》則有較多印度大師所寫的重要釋論。據學者們的初步評估,漢、藏《大藏經》的內容約有70%是重疊的。其餘有些是漢文佛典中有,但藏文佛典中沒有;有些是藏文佛典有,而漢文佛典裡沒有;有些則是互有詳略。透過漢藏佛典的互譯來彼此補遺,將是確保佛法能完整保存於漢藏佛典中以繼續流傳給後代子孫的重要一步。

Historically, the interaction between the Chinese and Tibetan traditions has been very strong. Tibetan kings invited Chinese monks to Tibet, and the Chinese emperors venerated Tibetan masters. Nevertheless, a lot of misconceptions still exist between the two traditions. In the true rimé spirit that Khyentse Foundation encourages cross-translation of the two canons.

從歷史上來看,中國傳統和西藏傳統之間的互動一直非常緊密。西藏國王邀請中國僧人到藏地講經說法,中國皇帝則將西藏大師尊為上師。然而,兩個傳統之間依然存在許多誤解。基於真正的利美精神(不分教派精神),欽哲基金會從2012年5月開始推動藏漢佛典的互譯計畫。

KF Initiative 欽哲基金會的新計畫

Following the success of 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha, Khyentse Foundation hosted a seminar, “Translation of Buddhist Canons: Preparation for Cross-Translation of Tibetan and Chinese Canons,” at the University of Hong Kong in May 2012. Participants included respected Buddhist masters and scholars from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. After much discussion and exchange, the participants agreed that this cross-translation work is extremely urgent and important, and they expressed their willingness to work together to complete this work in one hundred years.

繼【八萬四千·佛典傳譯】英譯計畫成功推展之後,欽哲基金會於2012年5月在香港大學主辦了一場「佛典傳譯‧漢藏互譯籌備研討會」,與會者包括來自兩岸三地的重要法師與學者。經過多方的討論與交流,與會人士一致認為漢藏佛典的互譯工作實在刻不容緩,並發願共同完成這項百年計畫。

PROGRESS TO DATE 目前的進展

To translate Tibetan Buddhist texts into Chinese, the foundation is sponsoring translator training programs at Dharma Drum Institute of Liberal Arts (DILA) and Fa-Kuang Institute of Buddhist Studies. Through this sponsorship, students and junior translators are able to study Tibetan in Tibetan communities abroad and to take more classes directly related to translating Tibetan texts into Chinese. Great Tibetan and Chinese Buddhist translators not only need to master both the source and target languages but also to understand both cultures deeply. They should also discuss the texts with Tibetan masters to grasp their essence before beginning translation.

為了將藏傳佛典翻譯成漢文,欽哲基金會分別與法鼓文理學院與法光佛教文化研究所合辦翻譯人才培訓計畫。通過這項贊助計畫,正在學習藏文的學生或新手譯者不僅能到海外學習藏文,也能接觸到更多與藏文佛典漢譯相關的課程。一位好的漢藏佛典譯者不僅需要充分掌握來源語和目標語,還必須深入了解這兩種文化。他們也必須在開始翻譯之前,與藏族上師們討論他們準備翻譯的經典,以充分掌握該原典的精髓。

Along with the translator training, DILA has completed the seventeenth chapter of Sthiramati’s Commentary on the Adornment of Mahāyāna Sūtras (Mahāyāna Sūtrālamkāra kārikā), and Fa-Kuang Institute has completed the introduction and the first and second chapters of Haribhadra’s Perfection of Wisdom in 25,000 Lines. Also, Professor Ming-yin Xu has completed translation of five works of Atisha.

除了翻譯人才的培訓之外,法鼓文理學院完成了《大乘莊嚴經論安慧釋》的第十七品;法光佛研所般若工作坊完成了師子賢論師的《般若波羅蜜多二萬五千》序分、發心與教誡三品。許明銀教授也完成了五部阿底峽尊者的著作。

 

PILOT 試運計畫

The present pilot translation project is another major step forward to plan the translation of Tibetan Buddhist texts into Chinese in a systematic manner.

目前開始推動的試運計畫,把規劃未來如何系統性地將藏傳佛典翻譯成漢文的工作,又再向前推動了一步。

It is estimated that number of texts yet to be translated from Tibetan into Chinese are:

  • 15,622 pages in the Kangyur (5,162 pages of Mahayana texts and 10,460 pages of Tantric texts).
  • 119,042 pages in the Tengyur (73,502 pages of Mahayana texts and 45,540 pages of Tantric texts)

根據統計,尚需要翻譯成漢文的藏傳佛典有:

  • 15,622頁的《甘珠爾》(5,162頁顯宗經典和10,460頁密續經典)。
  • 119,042頁的《丹珠爾》(73,502頁顯宗論典和45,540頁密續論典)。

number-of-pages-to-be-translated-into-chinese-from-the-tibetan-canon
About 20 senior Chinese and Tibetan scholars have already identified and selected 30 Kangyur texts and 10 Tengyur texts, each with less than 100 pages, as priority texts to jump start the project. During the pilot phase, priority will be given to translating the Kangyur and shorter texts.

約20位資深的漢族與藏族學者,挑選出不超過一百頁之30部《甘珠爾》文本和10部《丹珠爾》文本,作為試運計畫優先考慮翻譯之經論。試運期間的重心將放在翻譯《甘珠爾》中較短的佛典。

This pilot project adopts an open grant application process (based on the successful 84000 model) to attract more senior Chinese translators, Tibetan experts, and their disciples to participate in this translation effort.

這個試運計畫(依照【八萬四千·佛典傳譯】的成功模式)希望以開放資助申請的方式,吸引更多的資深漢文譯者、藏族專家和後起之秀來參與這項翻譯計畫。

Renowned Tibetan scholar Professor Jinsong Xiao has kindly agreed to lead the initiative as the project director. Prof. Xiao is joined by the following scholars as members of the Editorial Committee: Geshe Tenzin Namdol, Prof. Fu-chen Chang, Prof. Yi-yen Huang , Prof. Ben-sheng Liao , Prof. Kuo-Wei Liu , and Prof. Yao-ming Tsai. Jennifer Yo is the Project Coordinator.

著名的藏文學者蕭金松教授在我們的邀約下將擔任計畫主持人,並與丹增南卓格西、張福成教授、黃奕彥教授、廖本聖教授、劉國威教授、蔡耀明教授共同組成了編審委員會。計畫總協調人是游欣慈女士。

This project aims to meet the highest translation standards, with the educated general public as the target audience. The foundation will offer professional translation fees to qualified translators and translation teams, which will foster collaboration between Tibetan scholars and Chinese translators, following the tradition of Buddhist translation institutions.

本計畫希望以受過教育的一般大眾做為目標讀者,將信達雅的最高翻譯標準做為目標。欽哲基金會將以專業的翻譯稿酬來支付符合資格的譯者及翻譯團隊,並且依照古代譯經院的做法,促進藏族學者和與漢文譯者之間的合作。

The foundation hopes that this new initiative will result in a complete set of Buddhist scriptures in Chinese, so that Chinese Buddhists will have access to the teachings of Buddha and past masters that currently exist only in Tibetan.

基金會希望這項新的計畫能完成一套完整的中文佛典,中國佛教徒因此能讀到目前僅存於藏文的佛陀與高僧大德的教法。

mahayana-texts-in-tibetan-tengyur-to-be-translated-into-chinese

 

APPLY 申請辦法

We welcome qualified translators to join this pilot project by March 15, 2017. Application forms and other related documents can be found here:
我們歡迎所有有能力的譯者在2017年3月15日前申請參與這項試運計畫,以下是申請書與其他相關文件的連結:

  1. Application Form  申請書
  2. Priority Texts 優先翻譯經題
  3. Translation Guidelines  翻譯準則
  4. Application Guidelines  申請須知
  5. Sample Translation 般若波羅蜜多二萬五千 藏文漢譯

 

CONTACT

For inquiries, please email us at tibetan2chinese@khyentsefoundation.org.

如您有任何疑問,請來信 tibetan2chinese@khyentsefoundation.org